Django bulk_update without upsert

Postgres 9.5 brings a fantastic feature, that I’ve really been looking forward to. However, I’m not on 9.5 in production yet, and I had a situation that would really have benefitted from being able to use it.

I have to insert lots of objects, but if there is already an object in a given “slot”, then I need to instead update that existing object.

Doing this using the Django ORM can be done one a “one by one” basis, by iterating through the objects, finding which one (if any) matches the criteria, updating that, or creating a new one if there wasn’t a match.

However, this is really slow, as it does two queries for each object.

Instead, it would be great to:

  • fetch all of the instances that could possibly overlap (keyed by the matching criteria)
  • iterate through the new data, looking for a match
    • modify the instance if an existing match is made, and stash into pile “update”
    • create a new instance if no match is found, and stash into the pile “create”
  • bulk_update all of the “update” objects
  • bulk_create all of the “create” objects

Those familiar with Django may recognise that there is only one step here that cannot be done as of “now”.

So, how can we do a bulk update?

There are two ways I can think of doing it (at least with Postgres):

  • create a temporary table (cloning the structure of the table)
  • insert all of the data into this table
  • update the rows in the original table from the temporary table, based on pk column

and:

  • come up with some mechanism of using the UPDATE the_table SET ... FROM () sq WHERE sq.pk = the_table.pk syntax

It’s possible to use some of the really nice features of Postgres to create a temporary table, that clones an existing table, and will automatically be dropped at the end of the transaction:

BEGIN;

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE upsert_source (LIKE my_table INCLUDING ALL) ON COMMIT DROP;

-- Bulk insert into upsert_source

UPDATE my_table
   SET foo = upsert_source.foo,
       bar = upsert_source.bar
  FROM upsert_source
 WHERE my_table.id = upsert_source.id;

The drawbacks of this are that it does two extra queries, but it is possible to implement fairly simply:

from django.db import transaction, connection

@transaction.atomic
def bulk_update(model, instances, *fields):
    cursor = connection.cursor()
    db_table = model._meta.db_table

    try:
        cursor.execute(
            'CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE update_{0} (LIKE {0} INCLUDING ALL) ON COMMIT DROP'.format(db_table)
        )

        model._meta.db_table = 'update_{}'.format(db_table)
        model.objects.bulk_create(instances)

        query = ' '.join([
            'UPDATE {table} SET ',
            ', '.join(
                ('%(field)s=update_{table}.%(field)s' % {'field': field})
                for field in fields
            ),
            'FROM update_{table}',
            'WHERE {table}.{pk}=update_{table}.{pk}'
        ]).format(
            table=db_table,
            pk=model._meta.pk.get_attname_column()[1]
        )
        cursor.execute(query)
    finally:
        model._meta.db_table = db_table

The avantage of this is that it mostly just uses the ORM. There’s limited scope for SQL injection (although you’d probably want to validate the field names).

It’s also possible to do the update directly from a subquery, but without the nice column names:

UPDATE my_table
   SET foo = upsert_source.column2,
       column2 = upsert_source.column3
  FROM (
    VALUES (...), (...)
  ) AS upsert_source
 WHERE upsert_source.column1 = my_table.id;

Note that you must make sure your values are in the correct order (with the primary key first).

Attempting to prevent some likely SQL injection vectors, we want to build up the fixed parts of the query (and the parts that are controlled by the django model, like the table and field names), and then pass the values in as query parameters.

from django.db import connection

def bulk_update(model, instances, *fields):
    set_fields = ', '.join(
        ('%(field)s=update_{table}.column%(i)s' % {'field': field, 'i': i + 2})
        for i, field in enumerate(fields)
    )
    value_placeholder = '({})'.format(', '.join(['%s'] * (len(fields) + 1)))
    values = ','.join([value_placeholder] * len(instances))
    query = ' '.join([
        'UPDATE {table} SET ',
        set_fields,
        'FROM (VALUES ', values, ') update_{table}',
        'WHERE {table}.{pk} = update_{table}.column1'
    ]).format(table=model._meta.db_table, pk=model._meta.pk.get_attname_column()[1])
    params = []
    for instance in instances:
        data.append(instance.pk)
        for field in fields:
            params.append(getattr(instance, field))

    connection.cursor().execute(query, params)

This feels like a reasonable first draft, however I’d probably want to go look at how the query for bulk_create is created, and modify that. There’s a fair bit going on there that I haven’t followed as yet though. Note that this does not need the @transaction.atomic decorator, as it is only a single statement.

From here, we can build an upsert that assumes all objects with a PK need to be updated, and those without need to be inserted:

from django.utils.functional import partition
from django.db import transaction

@transaction.atomic
def bulk_upsert(model, instances, *fields):
    update, create = partition(lambda obj: obj.pk is None, instances)
    if update:
        bulk_update(model, update, *fields)
    if create:
        model.objects.bulk_create(create)
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