Too many rows!

We had an interesting problem at work today.

It seems that the sequence on one of our tables had exceeded 231 (2147483648), and since the primary key was an SERIAL column, this was problematic. From Numeric Types, we can see that only 4 bytes were used. Not enough.

This was presenting some problems, was was only limited to two aspects of the system, neither of which meant that it was worth bringing down the rest of the system to fix it.

Since the obvious fix would have resulted in downtime of somewhere between 20 minutes and an hour, we discarded that:

ALTER TABLE big_problem_here
ALTER COLUMN id TYPE BIGINT;

We tried that on our staging database, which had far fewer rows. That took 20 minutes to rewrite the table, during which time the entire database was essentially out of order.

Instead, we came up with a different solution:

Create a new table, which is identical to the other table (including using the same sequence: this is very important), except has the bigger integer type:

CREATE TABLE big_problem_here_fixed (
  id BIGINT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY DEFAULT nextval('big_problem_here_id_seq'::regclass),
  user_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  ...
);

ALTER TABLE big_problem_here_fixed
ADD CONSTRAINT user_id_refs_id_6ccf0120
FOREIGN KEY (user_id) REFERENCES auth_user (id)
DEFERRABLE INITIALLY DEFERRED;

CREATE INDEX big_problem_here_fixed_user_id
ON big_problem_here_fixed(user_id);

Then, we can copy the data from the old table into the new one. This is safe, because we can’t have any new rows inserted into the old table at the moment anyway, as all writes to it occur in a transaction, and there are no cases (other than a celery task, which only runs late at night) where an update or delete is not accompanied by at least one new row.

If this happens to you: you would need to ensure that there are not any rows being updated or deleted whilst you are doing the copy, otherwise you would lose those changes.

INSERT INTO big_problem_here_fixed SELECT * FROM big_problem_here;

This part took about an hour. I’m not sure if it took longer than the staging rewrite because there is more to do in this case, or just because there is more data.

Finally, the last part. We can rename both tables in a single transaction, so there won’t be any errors from missing tables between when we rename the first and the second.

BEGIN;
  ALTER TABLE big_problem_here RENAME TO big_problem_here_replaced;
  ALTER TABLE big_problem_here_fixed RENAME TO big_problem_here;
COMMIT;

Fallback values in Django

It’s not uncommon to have some type of cascading of values in a system. For instance, in our software, we allow a Brand to have some default settings, and then a Location may override some or all of these settings, or just fallback to the brand settings. I’m going to have a look at how this type of thing can be implemented using Django, and a way that this can be handled seamlessly.

We’ll start with our models:

class Brand(models.Model):
    brand_id = models.AutoField(primary_key=True)
    name = models.TextField()


class Location(models.Model):
    location_id = models.AutoField(primary_key=True)
    brand_id = models.ForeignKey(Brand, related_name='locations')
    name = models.TextField()


WEEKDAYS = [
  (1, _('Monday')),
  (2, _('Tuesday')),
  (3, _('Wednesday')),
  (4, _('Thursday')),
  (5, _('Friday')),
  (6, _('Saturday')),
  (7, _('Sunday')),
]


class BrandSettings(models.Model):
    brand = models.OneToOneField(Brand, primary_key=True, related_name='settings')
    opening_time = models.TimeField()
    closing_time = models.TimeField()
    start_day = models.IntegerField(choices=WEEKDAYS)


class LocationSettings(models.Model):
    location = models.OneToOneField(Location, primary_key=True, related_name='_raw_settings')
    opening_time = models.TimeField(null=True, blank=True)
    closing_time = models.TimeField(null=True, blank=True)
    start_day = models.IntegerField(choices=WEEKDAYS, null=True, blank=True)

We can’t use an abstract base model here, because the LocationSettings values are all optional, but the BrandSettings are not. We might have a look later at a way we can have a base model and inherit-and-change-null on the fields. In the place where we have used this, the relationship between Location and Brand is optional, which complicates things even further.

In practice, we’d have a bunch more settings, but this will make it much easier for us to follow what is going on.

To use these, we want to use a value from the LocationSettings object if it is set, else fall-back to the BrandSettings value for that column.

Location.objects.annotate(
    opening_time=Coalesce('settings__opening_time', 'brand__settings__opening_time'),
    closing_time=Coalesce('settings__closing_time', 'brand__settings__closing_time'),
    start_day=Coalesce('settings__start_day', 'brand__settings__start_day'),
)

And this is fine, but we can make it easier to manage: we want to be able to use Location().settings.start_day, and have that fall-back, but also build some niceness so that we can set values in a nice way in the UI.

We can use a postgres view, and then have a model in front of that:

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW location_actualsettings AS (
  SELECT location_id,
         COALESCE(location.opening_time, brand.opening_time) AS opening_time,
         COALESCE(location.closing_time, brand.closing_time) AS closing_time,
         COALESCE(location.start_day, brand.start_day) AS start_day
    FROM location_location
   INNER JOIN location_brandsettings brand USING (brand_id)
   INNER JOIN location_locationsettings location USING (location_id)
)

Notice that we have used INNER JOIN for both tables: we are making the assumption that there will always be a settings object for each brand and location.

Now, we want a model in front of this:

class ActualSettings(models.Model):
    location = models.OneToOneField(Location, primary_key=True, related_name='settings')
    opening_time = models.TimeField(null=True, blank=True)
    closing_time = models.TimeField(null=True, blank=True)
    start_day = models.IntegerField(choices=WEEKDAYS, null=True, blank=True)

    class Meta:
        managed = False

We want to indicate that it should allow NULL values in the columns, as when we go to update it, None will be taken to mean “use the brand default”.

As for the ability to write to this model, we have a couple of options. The first is to make sure that when we edit instances of the model, we actually use the Location()._raw_settings instance instead of the Location().settings. The other is to make the ActualSettings view have an update trigger:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION update_location_settings()
RETURNS TRIGGER AS $$

BEGIN

  IF (TG_OP = 'DELETE') THEN
    RAISE NOTICE 'DELETE FROM location_locationsettings WHERE location_id = %', OLD.location_id;
    DELETE FROM location_locationsettings WHERE location_id = OLD.location_id;
    RETURN OLD;
  ELSIF (TG_OP = 'UPDATE') THEN
    UPDATE location_locationsettings
       SET opening_time = NEW.opening_time,
           closing_time = NEW.closing_time,
           start_day = NEW.start_day
     WHERE location_locationsettings.location_id = NEW.location_id;
    RETURN NEW;
  ELSIF (TG_OP = 'INSERT') THEN
    INSERT INTO location_locationsettings (SELECT NEW.*);
    RETURN NEW;
  END IF;
  RETURN NEW;
END;

$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql VOLATILE;

CREATE TRIGGER update_location_settings
       INSTEAD OF INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE
       ON location_actualsettings
       FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE update_location_settings();

And this works as expected: however it is subject to a pretty significant drawback. If you add columns to the table/view, then you’ll need to update the function. Indeed, if you add columns to the tables, you’ll need to update the view too.

In many cases, this will be sufficient: those tables may not change much, and when they do, it’s just a matter of writing new migrations to update the view and function.


In practice, having the writeable view is probably overkill. You can just use a regular view, with a model in front of it, and then use that model when you need to use the coalesced values, but use the raw model when you are setting values.

You can even make it so that as a UI affordance, you show what the brand fallback value is instead of the None value:

class SettingsForm(forms.ModelForm):
    class Meta:
        model = LocationSettings
        fields = (
            'opening_time',
            'closing_time',
            'start_day'
        )

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        # We'll probably want to make sure we use a select_related() for this!
        brand = self.instance.location.brand
        brand_settings = brand.settings

        for name, field in self.fields.items():
            # See if the model knows how to display a nice value.
            display = 'get_{}_display'.format(name)
            if hasattr(brand_settings, display):
                brand_value = getattr(brand_settings, display)()
            else:
                brand_value = getattr(brand_settings, name)

            # If we have a time, then we want to format it nicely:
            if isinstance(brand_value, datetime.time):
                brand_value = Template('').render(Context({
                  'value': brand_value
                }))

            blank_label = _('Default for {brand}: {value}').format(
                brand=brand.name,
                value=brand_value,
            )

            # If we have a select that is _not_ a multiple select, then we
            # want to make it obvious that the brand default value can be
            # selected, or an explicit choice made.
            if hasattr(field, 'choices') and field.choices[0][0] == '':
                field.widget.choices = field.choices = [
                    (_('Brand default'), [('', blank_label)]),
                    (_('Choices'), list(field.choices[1:]))
                ]
            else:
                # On all other fields, set the placeholder, so that no value
                # entered will show the brand default label.
                field.widget.attrs['placeholder'] = blank_label

As mentioned in a comment: this uses a couple of lookups to get to the BrandSettings, you’d want to make sure your view used a .select_related():

class LocationSettingsView(UpdateView):
    form_class = SettingsForm

    def get_object(self):
        return LocationSettings.objects.select_related('location__brand__settings').get(
            location=self.kwargs['location']
        )

Again, this is all simplified when we have the requirement that there is always a Brand associated with a Location, and each of these always has a related settings object. It’s the latter part of this that is a little tricky. You can have objects automatically created in a signal handler, but in that case it would have to use default values.


Just from a DRY perspective, it would be great if you could have all three models inherit from the one base class, and have the view and trigger function update automatically.

In order to do that, we’ll need to do a bit of magic.

class SettingsBase(models.Model):
    opening_time = models.TimeField()
    closing_time = models.TimeField()
    start_day = models.IntegerField(choices=WEEKDAYS)

    class Meta:
        abstract = True

    def __init_subclass__(cls):
        if getattr(cls, '_settings_optional', False):
            for field in cls._meta.fields:
                field.null = True
                field.blank = True


class BrandSettings(SettingsBase):
    brand = models.OneToOneField(
        Brand,
        primary_key=True,
        related_name='settings',
        on_delete=models.CASCADE,
    )


class LocationSettings(SettingsBase):
    location = models.OneToOneField(
        Location,
        primary_key=True,
        related_name='raw_settings',
        on_delete=models.CASCADE,
    )
    _settings_optional = True


class ActualSettings(SettingsBase):
    location = models.OneToOneField(
        Location,
        primary_key=True,
        related_name='settings',
        on_delete=models.DO_NOTHING,
    )
    _settings_optional

    class Meta:
        managed = False

The magic is all clustered in the one spot, and Django’s order it does things makes this easy. By the time __init_subclass__ is evaluated, the subclass exists, and has all of the inherited fields, but none of the non-inherited fields. So, we can update those fields to not be required, if we find a class attribute _settings_optional that is true.

Automatically creating or replacing the view is a bit more work.

class ActualSettings(BaseSettings):
    location = models.OneToOneField(
        Location,
        primary_key=True,
        related_name='settings',
        on_delete=models.DO_NOTHING,
    )
    _settings_optional = True

    class Meta:
        managed = False

    @classmethod
    def view_queryset(cls):
        settings = {
            attribute: Coalesce(
              'raw_settings__{}'.format(attribute),
              'brand__settings__{}'.format(attribute)
            ) for attribute in (f.name for f in cls._meta.fields)
            if attribute != 'location'
        }
        return Location.objects.annotate(**settings).values('pk', *settings.keys())

This would then need some extra machinery to put that into a migration, and then, when running makemigrations, we’d want to automatically look at the last rendered version of that view, and see if what we have now differs. However, intercepting makemigrations, and changing the operations it creates is something I have not yet figured out how to achieve.

Instead, for Versioning complex database migrations I wound up creating a new management command.

A nicer syntax might be to have some way of defining a postgres view by using a queryset.

ActualSettings = Location.objects.annotate(
    opening_time=Coalesce('_raw_settings__opening_time', 'brand__settings__opening_time'),
    closing_time=Coalesce('_raw_settings__closing_time', 'brand__settings__closing_time'),
    start_day=Coalesce('_raw_settings__start_day', 'brand__settings__start_day'),
).values('location_id', 'opening_time', 'closing_time', 'start_day').as_view()

The problem with this is that we can’t do that in a model definition, as the other models are not loaded at this point in time.

Another possible syntax could be:

class ActualSettings(View):
    location = models.F('location_id')
    opening_time = Coalesce('_raw_settings__opening_time', 'brand__settings__opening_time')
    closing_time = Coalesce('_raw_settings__closing_time', 'brand__settings__closing_time')
    start_day = Coalesce('_raw_settings__start_day', 'brand__settings__start_day')

    class Meta:
      queryset = Location.objects.all()

… but I’m starting to veer off into a different topic now.


Actually writing a trigger function that handles all columns seamlessly is something that we should be able to do. Be warned though, this one is a bit of a doozy:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION update_instead()
RETURNS TRIGGER AS $$
DECLARE
  primary_key TEXT;
  target_table TEXT;
  columns TEXT;

BEGIN
  -- You must pass as first parameter the name of the table to which writes should
  -- actually be made.
  target_table = TG_ARGV[0]::TEXT;

  -- We want to get the name of the primary key column for the target table,
  -- if that was not already supplied.
  IF (TG_ARGV[1] IS NULL) THEN
    primary_key = (SELECT column_name
                     FROM information_schema.table_constraints
               INNER JOIN information_schema.constraint_column_usage
                    USING (table_catalog, table_schema, table_name,
                           constraint_name, constraint_schema)
                    WHERE constraint_type = 'PRIMARY KEY'
                      AND table_schema = quote_ident(TG_TABLE_SCHEMA)
                      AND table_name = quote_ident(target_table));
  ELSE
    primary_key = TG_ARGV[1]::TEXT;
  END IF;

  -- We also need the names of all of the columns in the current view.
  columns = (SELECT STRING_AGG(quote_ident(column_name), ', ')
               FROM information_schema.columns
              WHERE table_schema = quote_ident(TG_TABLE_SCHEMA)
                AND table_name = quote_ident(TG_TABLE_NAME));

  IF (TG_OP = 'DELETE') THEN
    EXECUTE format(
      'DELETE FROM %1$I WHERE %2$I = ($1).%2$I',
      target_table, primary_key
    ) USING OLD;
    RETURN OLD;
  ELSIF (TG_OP = 'INSERT') THEN
    -- columns must be treated as a string, because we've already
    -- quoted the columns in the query above.
    EXECUTE format(
      'INSERT INTO %1$I (%2$s) (SELECT ($1).*)',
      target_table, columns
    ) USING NEW;
    RETURN NEW;
  ELSIF (TG_OP = 'UPDATE') THEN
    EXECUTE format(
      'UPDATE %1$I SET (%2$s) = (SELECT ($1).*) WHERE %3$I = ($1).%3$I',
      target_table, columns, primary_key
    ) USING NEW;
    RETURN NEW;
  END IF;

  RAISE EXCEPTION 'Unhandled.';
END;

$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql VOLATILE;

There are some things I learned about postgres when doing this: specifically that you can use the EXECUTE format('SELECT ... ($1).%s', arg) USING NEW syntax: the format() function makes it much neater than using string concatenation, and using the EXECUTE '...($1).%s' USING ... form was the only way I was able to access the values from the NEW and OLD aliases within an execute. There’s also a bunch of stuff you have to do to make sure that the columns line up correctly when updating or inserting into the target table.

We can then apply this to our view:

CREATE TRIGGER update_instead
INSTEAD OF UPDATE OR INSERT OR DELETE
ON location_actualsettings
FOR EACH ROW
EXECUTE PROCEDURE update_instead('location_locationsettings', 'location_id');